An integrative assessment combining net sampling, in situ observations and eDNA analysis to assess the cephalopod biodiversity of Cabo Verde


Net catches of cephalopods were obtained during the cruises POS320/2 (March 2005), MSM49 (November/December 2015) and WH383 (March/April 2015) off Cabo Verde at a total of 18 stations at depths between 0 and 1000 m. Cephalopods were caught during POS320/2 with either a Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawl (IKMT) with a 6 m2 net opening, 4 mm mesh size equipped with a flowmeter, a Hydro-Bios Multinet Maxi with a 0.5 m2 net opening and 500 µm mesh size between the surface and 250 m water depth, or an 80 feet bottom trawl. Net sampling during MSM49 was conducted with two types of multiple opening/closing nets (MOCNESS) and an IKMT. The smaller MOCNESS had a net opening of 1 m2 opening (three nets with a mesh size of 2 mm and six nets with a mesh size of 335 μm) and the larger MOCNESS a net opening of 10 m2 opening (five nets, mesh size: 1.5 mm) and were deployed between the surface to 1000 m. The IKMT had a net opening of 7 m2 and ended in a cod end of 500 µm mesh size. It was deployed to a maximum depth of 500 m. During WH383 a pelagic trawl ('Aalnetz', Engel Netze, Bremerhaven, Germany) with a mouth opening of 16 x 30 m, length of 150 m including multiple opening-closing device, 260 meshes by 180 cm stretched mesh size at the front, a cod end 20 mm stretched mesh-opening and a 1.8 mm inlet sewn into last 1 m of cod end was used with a multisampler (Construction Services AS, Bergen, Norway) allowing depth-stratified sampling. During WH383 three strata (mean vertical extension of ca. 40 m) were trawled mostly during night and one time during daytime at depths between 30 and 700 m in horizontal tows for 30 minutes per stratum with a mean speed of three knots (2.8-3.3 kn). During this cruise, night trawls took place at 22:00 local time, and the day-time trawl at 12:00 local time. Onboard, cephalopods were identified morphologically to the lowest taxonomic level possible (species, genus or family), and whole specimens were preserved in formalin as voucher. In addition, tissue samples of some specimen were collected and preserved in ethanol for barcoding and the genetic reference database used for eDNA metabarcoding. Pelagic video transects with the Pelagic In-Situ Observation System (PELAGIOS, (Hoving et al., 2019a)) were conducted during the cruises MSM49 (Christiansen et al., 2016) (transects between 30 and 1000 m, total towing duration > 80h), MSM61 (Fiedler et al., 2020) (transects between 80 and 1200 m, total hours of observations > 32h), POS520 (Hoving et al., 2018, p. 520) (transects between 30 and 2500 m, total hours of observations 27h), POS532 (Hoving et al., 2019b) (transects between 30 and 990 m, total hours of observations 19h) and M119 (Brandt, 2016) (transects between 50 and 700 m, total hours of observations > 20h) between 2015 and 2019 (Figure 1). PELAGIOS is a battery powered, high-definition camera system that is towed horizontally via a single-wired conductive sea-cable at 0.5 m s -1. Around 0.45 m2 of the water column in front of the camera is illuminated with an LED array. The attached depth sensor and/or a sensor for conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) with oxygen sensor allows for hydrographic measurements and depth monitoring during transects. Pelagic video transects were conducted between 11-33 minutes per depth, towing the camera horizontally at specified depths. A deep-sea telemetry system allows for transmission of a low-resolution preview of the recorded video. During the cruises POS520 and POS532 the manned submersible JAGO (GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research) was used for 30 deployments of about four hours each between the surface and 350 m water depth. During the dives, video was recorded by a high-resolution camera. The videos taken during the PELAGIOS and JAGO dives were annotated manually using the Video Annotation and Reference System (VARS) developed at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which allows annotation and congruent collection of video frames. We also provide raw data on environmental DNA samples taken during POS532 in February 2019 at five stations. The stations off the islands Santo Antão and Fogo were close to the coast (maximum sampled depth 2500 m), CVOO was a reference station in the open ocean (maximum sampled depth 3000 m) and the stations Cyclone and Anticyclone were located eddies that had formed in the wake of Fogo and had propagated southwards (maximum sampled depths 2200 and 600 m, respectively). Per sampled depth, three biological replicates of two liters of seawater each were collected from three different 10 liter Niskin bottles mounted on a CTD rosette. For filtration, 0.22 µm pore size Sterivex-GP filter (Merck Millipore) were directly connected to the Niskin bottle with sterile tubing. The weight of the water in the Niskin bottles was sufficient to filter two liters of seawater per filter. The filters were closed with sterile plastic caps and stored at -80°C until further processing in the laboratory.

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Creator Merten, Veronique ORCID logo; Bayer, Till ORCID logo; Reusch, Thorsten B H ORCID logo; Puebla, Oscar ORCID logo; Fuss, Janina ORCID logo; Stefanschitz, Julia ORCID logo; Lischka, Alexandra ORCID logo; Hauss, Helena ORCID logo; Neitzel, Philipp; Piatkowski, Uwe ORCID logo; Czudaj, Stephanie ORCID logo; Christiansen, Bernd; Denda, Anneke; Hoving, Henk-Jan T ORCID logo
Publisher PANGAEA
Publication Year 2021
Funding Reference Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn Crossref Funder ID 4074495230 High-Throughput Sequencing; German Research Foundation Crossref Funder ID 382101453 The role of pelagic foodfalls in subsidizing deep-sea bottom communities in a changing ocean
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International;
OpenAccess true
Resource Type Publication Series of Datasets; Collection
Format application/zip
Size 3 datasets
Discipline Earth System Research
Spatial Coverage (-27.547W, 11.586S, -21.599E, 18.509N)
Temporal Coverage Begin 2005-04-12T00:00:00Z
Temporal Coverage End 2019-02-22T18:24:00Z