XRF, grain size, and biogeochemical characteristics of a sediment core from Lake Malaya Chabyda, Central Yakutia


Eight overlapping sediment cores, representing an approximately 6.6 m–long composite sequence, were collected on March 24, 2013 from Lake Malaya Chabyda in Central Yakutia (exact coring location 61°57.509' 129°24.500'). Sampling was conducted during a German–Russian Expedition (“Yakutia 2013”) as a cooperation between the North Eastern Federal State University in Yakutsk (NEFU) and the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). To penetrate ca. 1 m of lake ice cover, 250-mm-diameter holes were drilled using a hand-held Jiffy ice auger. Water depth was measured using an Echo sounder (HONDEX PS-7 LCD) and a calibrated rope for verification. 100 cm-long parallel cores were collected at 2 m water depth using a Russian peat corer and supported by an UWITEC gravity coring system. Cores were stored in waterproof sealed, transparent PVC plastic tubes in cool and dark conditions. After the field season, the cores were transported to Potsdam, Germany and stored at 4°C in the cold rooms at AWI. The cores did not experience any visible drying or surface oxidation during storage.High–resolution X–ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses were carried out with 10 mm resolution on the entire sequence using an Avaatech XRF core scanner at AWI (Bremerhaven, Germany) with a Rh X-ray tube at 10 kV (without filter, 12 s, 1.5 mA) and 30 kV (Pd-thick filer, 15 s, 1.2 mA). The sediment surface was cleaned, leveled, and covered with a 4µm ultralene foil to avoid sediment desiccation prior to XRF scanning. Individual element counts per second (CPS) were transformed using a centered log transformation (CLR) and element ratios were transformed using an additive log ratio (ALR) to account for compositional data effects and reduce effects from variations in sample density, water content, and grain size. Statistical analysis was completed using the Python programming language (Python Software Foundation, https://www.python.org/). XRF analysis of the sequence indicated 24 detectable elements and a subset of these were selected for analysis based on low element χ2 values. These selected elements include the major rock forming elements of Silicon (Si) (Chi2 1.4), Calcium (Ca) (Chi2 6.3), Titanium (Ti) (Chi2 1.3), Rubidium (Rb) (Chi2 0.6), Strontium (Sr) (Chi2 0.7), Zircon (Zr) (Chi2 0.6) and the redox sensitive, productivity indicating elements of Manganese (Mn) (Chi2 1.3), Iron (Fe) (Chi2 2.5), and Bromine (Br) (Chi2 0.8). All subsequent analyses took place after the extracted subsamples had been freeze–dried until completely dry (approximately 48 hours). Grain size analysis was conducted on 18 samples that were chosen to span the entire sequence at relatively regular intervals. The samples were first treated for five weeks with H2O2 (0.88 M) in order to isolate clastic material. After treatment, seven samples were eliminated from the analysis because the remaining inorganic sediment fraction was too low for detection by the laser grain size analyzer. The remaining samples were homogenized using an elution shaker for 24 h and then analyzed using a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 laser. Standard statistical parameters (mean, median, mode, sorting, skewness, and kurtosis) were determined using GRADISTAT 9.1. Total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), and total nitrogen (TN) analyses were completed after the freeze–dried subsamples were ground in a Pulverisette 5 (Fritsch) planetary mill at 3000 rpm for 7 minutes. TC and TN were measured in a carbon–nitrogen–sulphur analyzer (Vario EL III, Elementar). Five mg of sample material were encapsulated in tin (Sn) capsules together with 10 mg of tungsten–(VI)–oxide. The tungsten–(VI)–oxide ensures complete oxidation of the sample during the measurement process. Duplicate capsules were prepared and measured for each subsample. Blanks and calibration standards were placed every 15 samples to ensure analytical accuracy (< ± 0.1 wt%). Between each sample spatula was cleaned with KIMTECK fuzz-free tissues and isopropyl.Analysis of TOC began by removing the inorganic carbon fraction by placing each subsample in a warm hydrochloric acid solution (1.3 molar) for at least three hours and then transferring the sample to a drying oven. The TC measured for each subsample in the previous analysis was used to determine the amount of sample required for the TOC analysis. The appropriate amount of sample was weighted in a ceramic crucible and analyzed using the Vario Max C, Elementar. The TOC/TN ratio was converted to the TOC/TNatomic ratio by multiplying the TOC/TN ratio by 1.167 (atomic weight of carbon and nitrogen). Total inorganic carbon (TIC) analysis was completed using a Vario SoilTOC cube elemental analyzer after combustion at 400ºC (TOC) and 900ºC (TIC) (Elementar Corp., Germany).Calculation of δ13C was completed twice for a subset of samples using two different methodologies. The analysis completed at the AWI Potsdam ISOLAB Facility removed carbonate by treating the samples with hydrogen chloride (12 M HCl) for three hours at 97 °C, then adding purified water and decanting and washed three times. Once the chloride content was below 500 parts per million (ppm), the samples were filtered over a glass microfiber (Whatman Grade GF/B, nominal particle retention of 1.0 µm). The residual sample was dried overnight in a drying cabinet at 50°C. The dry samples were manually ground for homogenization and weighted into tin capsules and analyzed using a ThermoFisher Scientific Delta–V–Advantage gas mass spectrometer equipped with a FLASH elemental analyzer EA 2000 and a CONFLO IV gas mixing system. In this system, the sample is combusted at 1020°C in O2 atmosphere so that the OC is quantitatively transferred to CO2, after which the isotope ratio is determined relative to a laboratory standard of known isotopic composition. Capsules for control and calibration were run in between. The isotope composition is given in permil (‰) relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB). The analysis of a small subset of samples which took place at Laboratoire des sciences du climat et de l'environnement Isotopic Laboratory for methodological comparison underwent a slightly different treatment, as follows. The sediment underwent a soft leaching process to remove carbonate using pre-combusted glass beakers, HCl 0.6N at room temperature, ultra-pure water and drying at 50 C. The samples were then crushed in a pre-combusted glass mortar for homogenization prior to carbon content and δ13 C analysis. The handling and chemical procedures are common precautions employed with low-carbon-content sediments. Analysis was performed online using a continuous flow EA-IRMS coupling, that is, a Fisons Instrument NA 1500 Element Analyzer coupled to a ThermoFinigan Delta+XP Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometer. Two in-house standards (oxalic acid, δ13C =−19.3% and GCL, _13C =−26.7 %) were inserted every five samples. Each in-house standard was regularly checked against international standards. The measurements were at least triplicated for representativeness. The external reproducibility of the analysis was better than 0.1 %, typically 0.06 %. Extreme values were checked twice.Those samples for which the carbonate was leeched at the room temperature, with lower HCl concentration (0.6N), and without a filtration step (samples analyzed at Laboratoire des sciences du climat et de l'environnement Isotopic Laboratory) had δ13C values 0.1‰ to 1.0‰ (average 0.5‰) higher than the samples treated at the higher temperature (97.7 ºC). However, the plotted δ13C curve is nearly identical for the subset of samples which were subjected to both treatments. There is some heterogeneity in the amount of offset between the two treatment methods. This might be related to an asymmetrical distribution of hot acid-soluble organic compounds throughout the sediment core. A correction of ca. +0.5‰ was applied to the results of the high temperature treatment. These values were then combined with the low temperature results to provide a complete dataset for the whole core. The standard deviation (1σ) is generally better than δ13C = ±0.15‰.

DOI https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.933411
Related Identifier IsSupplementTo https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2021.710257
Metadata Access https://ws.pangaea.de/oai/provider?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=datacite4&identifier=oai:pangaea.de:doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.933411
Creator Biskaborn, Boris K ORCID logo; Hughes-Allen, Lara ORCID logo; Bouchard, Frédéric ORCID logo; Hatte, Christine; Pestryakova, Luidmila A ORCID logo; Diekmann, Bernhard ORCID logo; Subetto, Dmitry A ORCID logo; Meyer, Hanno ORCID logo
Publisher PANGAEA
Publication Year 2021
Funding Reference Agence Nationale de la Recherche https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001665 Crossref Funder ID ANR-17-MPGA-0014 ; Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation https://doi.org/10.13039/501100003443 Crossref Funder ID FSZN-2020-16
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
OpenAccess true
Resource Type Bundled Publication of Datasets; Collection
Format application/zip
Size 2 datasets
Discipline Earth System Research
Spatial Coverage (61.958 LON, 61.958 LAT); Lake Malaya Chabyda, Yakutia, Russia