Seawater carbonate chemistry and embryonic and larval development and survival of intertidally spawning fish


Ocean acidification can negatively impact the early life-stages of marine fish, due to energetic costs incurred by the maintenance of acid–base homeostasis, leaving less energy available for growth and development. The embryos of intertidally spawning fishes, such as Pacific herring, are often air exposed for hours. We hypothesized that air exposure would be beneficial to the developing embryo due to a higher oxygen availability (and thus reduced metabolic costs to secure adequate oxygen) and permitting excess CO2 associated with ocean acidification to be off-gassed during emersion. To investigate this, we reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) embryos under three tidal regimes (subtidal: fully immersed, low intertidal: 2 * 2 h air exposure, and high intertidal: 5 + 9 h air exposure) fully crossed with three aquatic CO2 levels (400, 1500 and 3200 µatm) at a water temperature of 9.5 °C and naturally fluctuating air temperature during air exposure. We measured the effects on embryonic development and hatch, as well as carry-over effects on larval development and survival. Air exposure during embryonic development had significant positive effects on growth, condition and survival in larval Pacific herring, with some interactive effects with CO2. Interestingly, CO2 by itself in the fully immersed treatment had no effect, but had significant interactions with air exposure. Our research suggests that air exposure during low tide can be highly beneficial to intertidally spawning fishes and needs to be taken into account in climate change studies and modeling.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Gattuso et al, 2021) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2022-10-18.

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Metadata Access
Creator Frommel, Andrea Y ORCID logo; Lye, Sadie L R; Brauner, Colin J; Hunt, Brian P V
Publisher PANGAEA
Contributor Yang, Yan
Publication Year 2022
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International;
OpenAccess true
Resource Type Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 73103 data points
Discipline Earth System Research