Chemical analysis of diets, carcass and faeces of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) fed with emerging protein sources


This study examined the growth response of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to diets with graded fishmeal (FM) replacement with plant, animal, and emerging protein sources (PLANT, PAP, and MIX) in comparison to a commercial-like diet (CTRL). The feeding experiment was carried out from April to July 2019 in the Centre for Aquaculture Research (ZAF) at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine research in Bremerhaven, Germany. The juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were purchased from France Turbot (L'Épine, France) and acclimated to the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for 2 weeks prior to starting the 16 weeks experimental trial. To elucidate the effects of the protein sources and the level of FM replacement on the proximate and mineral composition of the carcass and the apparent digestibility of the diets, in this study. The chemical analysis of the diets was conducted in duplicates and of the carcass and faeces as pooled replicates per tank (n =5 tanks per diet). The carcass samples were minced frozen using a meat grinder (MADO Primus, Germany), refrozen at−20 °C and then freeze-dried for 48 h. The samples of the experimental diets and faeces were freeze-dried for 24 h. The experimental diets and whole body samples were further homogenised in a knife grinder (5000 rpm, 30 s, Grindomix GM 200, Retsch, Germany). The moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude lipid and energy of the experimental diets, carcass and faeces was determined after AOAC (1980). Moisture content of the feeds was determined by drying the samples at 105 °C for 24 h. The moisture content of the whole body and faeces was determined by freeze-drying. Total ash content was determined by combustion of the samples in a muffle oven at 550 °C for 6 h. The total nitrogen in the feed and whole body samples was determined following the automated Kjeldahl Method. Due to small sample volume in the faeces samples, the total nitrogen was determined after the Dumas method. For all samples, the measured total nitrogen was converted to equivalent crude protein (%) by the numerical factor of 6.25. Crude lipid was determined by acid hydrolysis. Gross energy was measured in an adiabatic bomb calorimeter (Model 6100; Parr Instrument, Germany). For the analysis of the mineral content, 0.2 g of freeze-dried and homogenised samples of the experimental diets, whole body and faeces was digested in 3 mL nitric acid (HNO3) (65%, trace grade) in a microwave oven (CEM MARS5, Germany) according to DIN EN 13,805 (2014). After digestion, the samples were diluted with Milli-Q water to 50 mL. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, arsenic, copper, iron, manganese, yttrium and zinc concentrations were analysed in an ICP-OES (iCAP7400; Fisher Scientific, Germany). As reference fish muscle (ERM – BB422, EU) was used.

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Metadata Access
Creator Hörterer, Christina; Petereit, Jessica ORCID logo; Johansen, Johan ORCID logo; Buck, Bela Hieronymus ORCID logo
Publisher PANGAEA
Publication Year 2023
Funding Reference Horizon 2020 Crossref Funder ID 773330 Green Aquaculture Intensification in Europe
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International;
OpenAccess true
Resource Type Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 1167 data points
Discipline Earth System Research