Experiment: Acidified seawater impacts sea urchin larvae pH regulatory systems relevant for calcification


Calcifying echinoid larvae respond to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry with reduced growth and developmental delay. To date, no information exists on how ocean acidification acts on pH homeostasis in echinoderm larvae. Understanding acid-base regulatory capacities is important because intracellular formation and maintenance of the calcium carbonate skeleton is dependent on pH homeostasis. Using H(+)-selective microelectrodes and the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, we conducted in vivo measurements of extracellular and intracellular pH (pH(e) and pH(i)) in echinoderm larvae. We exposed pluteus larvae to a range of seawater CO(2) conditions and demonstrated that the extracellular compartment surrounding the calcifying primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) conforms to the surrounding seawater with respect to pH during exposure to elevated seawater pCO(2). Using FITC dextran conjugates, we demonstrate that sea urchin larvae have a leaky integument. PMCs and spicules are therefore directly exposed to strong changes in pH(e) whenever seawater pH changes. However, measurements of pH(i) demonstrated that PMCs are able to fully compensate an induced intracellular acidosis. This was highly dependent on Na(+) and HCO(3)(-), suggesting a bicarbonate buffer mechanism involving secondary active Na(+)-dependent membrane transport proteins. We suggest that, under ocean acidification, maintained pH(i) enables calcification to proceed despite decreased pH(e). However, this probably causes enhanced costs. Increased costs for calcification or cellular homeostasis can be one of the main factors leading to modifications in energy partitioning, which then impacts growth and, ultimately, results in increased mortality of echinoid larvae during the pelagic life stage.

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne et al, 2014) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2014-05-28.

Supplement to: Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian Y; Melzner, Frank; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Dorey, Narimane; Himmerkus, Nina; Holtmann, Wiebke C; Dupont, Sam; Thorndyke, Mike; Bleich, Markus (2012): Acidified seawater impacts sea urchin larvae pH regulatory systems relevant for calcification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(44), 18192-18197

DOI https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.833111
Related Identifier https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1209174109
Related Identifier https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Metadata Access https://ws.pangaea.de/oai/provider?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=datacite4&identifier=oai:pangaea.de:doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.833111
Creator Stumpp, Meike ORCID logo; Hu, Marian Y (ORCID: 0000-0002-8914-139X); Melzner, Frank ORCID logo; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Dorey, Narimane ORCID logo; Himmerkus, Nina ORCID logo; Holtmann, Wiebke C; Dupont, Sam; Thorndyke, Mike; Bleich, Markus ORCID logo
Publisher PANGAEA
Contributor Yang, Yan
Publication Year 2012
Rights Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
OpenAccess true
Resource Type Supplementary Dataset; Dataset
Format text/tab-separated-values
Size 41045 data points
Discipline Earth System Research